Editorial standards

The following editorial principles are employed in creating this digital edition.

The sources texts we edit contain many different kinds of material, including multiple languages, scientific formulas, illustrations, tables, footnotes, marginal subheadings, and so forth. These standards evolved with the goal in mind of creating as accurate a reproduction of the encyclopedia text as possible and allowing for the incorporation of further details at a later date, if desired. This list describes the essential principles adhered to in creating this edition.

  1. Captions
    • Table captions are included.
    • Image captions are not included.
  2. Diacritics and Alphabets
    • All original language characters with their diacritical markings in the source text are reproduced.
    • Some languages, such as Hebrew and Sanskrit, require special treatment and are noted for further review during a cleaning operation.
  3. Notes
    • All note text is preserved and moved in line with the body text, at the site of the original note anchor.
    • Unanchored note text is moved in line with the body text, at the logical point of reference.
    • Source note numbers are replaced with a continuous sequence of note numbers restarting with 1 for each entry.
    • Marginal notes are reproduced with the value "margin" in the <note> element.
  4. Formulas
    • Simple one-line mathematical and chemical formulas are reproduced.
    • Multi-line formulas are noted for further review during a cleaning operation.
  5. Images
    • Images are outside the scope of this edition.
  6. Headings
    • The text of headings and subheadings within the normal flow of the text are included.
    • Subheadings in the margins or in cut-outs of the text area are not included.
  7. Ligatures
    • Ligatures are reproduced as multiple letters, not a unique symbol.
  8. Page Layout
    • The two-column format of individual pages is not preserved. All type is presented as a single column capturing the flow of the semantic content.
    • Page breaks are indicated in place in the metadata.
    • Column breaks are not indicated.
  9. Tables
    • Table data is preserved in tabular format.
    • Lines and graphical attributes of the source table are not reproduced.
  10. Typographical errors
    • Obvious misspellings in the source text are silently corrected.
    • Illegible text is rare. When it occurs, it is indicated with bracketed ellipses: [...].
  11. Spelling
    • Original spelling is preserved throughout.
  12. Type style
    • The following font formatting is preserved:
      • Italic
      • Small Cap
      • Strike through
      • Subscript
      • Superscript
      • Underline
    • The following formatting is ignored:
      • Bold
      • Font size
      • Typeface